Meduxnekeag River Association

Meduxnekeag Animals

These are the animals found in the Meduxnekeag watershed.

Moose
Alces alces
Size: Height 1.95-2.25 m; Length 2.06-2.79 m
Appearance: Horse-size with Long, dark brown hair. High, humped shoulders; long, slender legs; tail inconspicuous. Huge pendulous muzzle; large dewlap under chin; large ears. Males are much larger than females, with huge antlers.
Food: In summer, willows and aquatic vegetation. In winter, woody plants.
Habitat: Stable population in forests and wetlands throughout watershed.

White-tailed Deer
Odocoileus virginianus
Size: Height 68-114 cm; Length 1.33-2.13 m
Appearance: Tan or reddish brown above in summer; grayish brown in winter. Belly, throat, nose band, eye ring, and inside of ears are white. Tail is brown, edged with white above, often with a dark stripe down the center. Black spots on sides of chin. Buck is antlered; doe rarely has antlers. Fawn spotted
Food: Grazes on green plants in the summer and eats beechnuts in the fall. In the winter they browse on woody vegetation
Habitat: Common in farmland, brushy areas, woods, and gardens throughout watershed

Black Bear
Ursus americanus
Size: Height 90-105 cm; Length 1.37-1.88 m
Appearance: Nearly black in colour, with a white blaze on chest. Tan or grizzled snout. The male is much larger than the female.
Food: Many types of vegetation and fish. Black bears will also tear apart rotting logs to get at grubs, beetles, and ants. Sometimes will rip open bee trees to feast on honey, honeycombs, and bees. Often attracted to unsecured residential garbage containers at campsites, cottages and rural homes.
Habitat: Forested areas of the watershed. Hibernates through coldest part of winter.

Eastern Coyote
Canis latrans
Size: 120-150 cm
Appearance: Silvery gray to grizzled brownish-red in colour with long legs, thick fur, and a pointy snout. Tail is drooping, bushy, and black-tipped
Food: Small rodents, rabbits, deer, snakes, frogs, and insects. They will also eat fruits, berries, vegetables, garbage, and pet food left outdoors
Habitat: Now ranges widely throughout watershed after having spread into the area about 30 years ago.

Eastern Cougar
Puma concolor
Size: Length 1.5-2.75 m
Appearance: Unspotted with a small head and a long, dark-tipped tail. Pale brown above, and caramel-coloured below. Ears short and rounded with dark backs. Legs long and heavy with large feet.
Food: Primarily large mammals, but also eats porcupines, beavers, mice, hares, racoons, birds, and even grasshoppers
Habitat: Very rare in the watershed: there have been no fully confirmed sightings of Eastern Cougar in New Brunswick, although they have been reported here and are believed to be present.

Red Fox
Vulpes vulpes
Size: Height 38-41 cm; Length 90-103 cm
Appearance: Rusty reddish above, with white underparts, chin, and throat. Long, bushy tail with a white tip. Prominent pointed ears. Backs of legs, ears, and feet are black.
Food: They feed on birds and small mammals, also fruits and berries in season. Approximately one quarter of their diet consists of grasshoppers, crickets, caterpillars, beetles, and crayfish
Habitat: Common throughout the watershed.

Raccoon
Procyon lotor
Size: Length 60.3-95.0 cm
Appearance: Usually gray-brown or orange-brown above, with grayish below. Face has black mask outlined in white. Bushy tail with 4-6 alternating black and brown rings. Ears are quite small.
Food: Eats nuts and berries, as wells as grubs, voles, deer mice, squirrels, and bird eggs
Habitat: Common throughout watershed.

Beaver
Castor canadensis
Size: Length 90-120 cm
Appearance: Rounded head and small, rounded ears. Dark brown fur and scaly tail which is large, black, and paddle-shaped. Large, black, webbed hindfoot has five toes, with inner 2 nails cleft. Small eyes and ears.
Food: Mainly tree bark, but will also eat roots, buds, and other water plants
Habitat: Stable population in and near the larger streams and ponds of the watershed.

Bobcat
Felis rufus
Size: Length 70 - 125 cm
Appearance: Tawny with indistinct dark spotting. Short, stubby tail, with 2-3 black bars and black tip above; pale or white below. Legs have dark horizontal bars. Face has thin black lines radiating onto broad cheek ruff. Ears are slightly tufted. Male larger than female.
Food: Principally small rodents
Habitat: Uncommon. Hardwood, coniferous, or mixed forest.

Lynx
Lynx canadensis
Size: Length 80-100 cm
Appearance: Thick light brown or gray fur with light black spots and large ears with black tufts at the ends. Its tail is short with a black tip at the end and it has long legs and big paws
Food: Birds, meadow voles, varying hare, carrion, and sometimes deer
Habitat: Rare. Coniferous forests, bogs, and swamps.

Eastern Chipmunk
Tamias striatus
Size: Length 215-299mm
Appearance: Reddish brown above and a white belly. One white stripe bordered by two black stripes on sides. Also has two thin white stripes with a dark center stripe down back. Pale facial stripes above and below eyes. The tail is brown on the tip, edged with black.
Food: Primarily nuts and seeds. Will eat other types of vegetation
Habitat: Very common and widespread in deciduous woodlands, forest edges, brushy areas, and gardens.

Striped Skunk
Mephitis mephitis
Size: Length 52.2-80.0 cm
Appearance: Black with two thick white stripes on back, which met in cap on head and shoulders and a thin white stripe down the center of their face. They also have a bushy black tail with a white tip.
Food: Insects, small mammals, bird eggs, and amphibians. They also will eat beetles, grasshoppers, earthworms, snails, and crayfish, as well as fruit.
Habitat: Very common in rural, suburban and urban areas.

Red Squirrel
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
Size: Length 27.0-38.5 cm
Appearance: Rusty to grayish-red above and white to grayish-white below. Tail is similar in colour to back, but outlined with a thick black band edged in white. In winter, a black line separates reddish back from whitish belly and squirrel has prominent ear tufts.
Food: Nuts, berries, fruit, seeds, cones, birds’ eggs, and fungi
Habitat: Very common in all kinds of forest.

Gray Squirrel
Sciurus carolinensis
Size: Length 43-50 cm
Appearance: Gray above, with light brown underfur showing mostly on head, shoulders, back , and feet. Underparts paler gray. Tail is gray and bushy with silver-tipped hairs.
Food: Nuts, seeds predominantly.
Habitat: Common resident in Woodstock, slowly spreading to outlying parts of watershed, although not well established.

Varying Hare
Lepus americanus
Size: Length 45-48 cm
Appearance: Medium sized, with white fur in the winter and brownish fur in the summer. They have very large black feet and relatively small ears.
Food: Foliage, twigs, and other vegetation in summer and bark in winter
Habitat: Common in woods throughout watershed.

Fisher
Martes pennanti
Size: Length 79-103 cm
Appearance: Long body with dark brown fur and bushy tail. Broad head with a grayish cast, pointed snout, and small ears. Male is larger than female
Food: Porcupines, squirrels, mice, and chipmunks
Habitat: Mature, dense, coniferous or mixed coniferous-hardwood forest with closed canopy. Uncommon in watershed.

Mink
Mustela vison
Size: Length 49.1-72.0 cm
Appearance: Sleek-bodies with chocolate-brown to black fur and white spotting on chin and throat. Tail is long and somewhat bushy. Males are larger than females.
Food: Prefers the muskrat, but will also eat rabbits, mice, chipmunks, fish, snakes, and birds
Habitat: Riparian zones. Stable population.

Northern River Otter
Lutra canadensis
Size: Length 88.9-131.3 cm
Appearance: Elongated body, broad, flattened head, small ears and eyes, and webbed feet. Dark brown above, with a paler belly. Throat is often silvery-gray in colour. Tail is thick at base, gradually tapering to a point. Male is larger than female.
Food: Mainly fish, but also eats mice and aquatic invertebrates
Habitat: Not uncommon in the Meduxnekeag; ranges along larger tributaries to lakes and ponds; also sometimes overland especially in winter.

Least Weasel
Mustela nivalis
Size: Length 17.2-20.6 cm
Appearance: Brown above and white below with a very short, brown tail and white feet
Food: Primarily meadow voles and occasionally shrews, moles, birds, and insects
Habitat: Present in grassy and brushy fields, as well as marsh areas.

Short-tailed Weasel
Mustela erminea
Size: 19.0-34.4 cm
Appearance: Dark brown above and white below with a brown, black-tipped tail. Short legs, with white feet. Male is almost twice as large as female. White in winter.
Food: Mice, shrews, baby rabbits, birds, frogs, snakes, and many types of insects
Habitat: Common in open woodland, brushy areas, grasslands, wetlands, and farmland. Also ranges through residential neighbourhoods.

Porcupine
Erethizon dorsatum
Size: Up to 90 cm
Appearance: Black to brownish-yellow fur and strong, short legs. It has a round body, small ears, and a small head. A porcupine’s body is also covered with as many as 30,00 quills
Food: Leaves, twigs, bark of many tree varieties, and green plants.
Habitat: Common in rural areas throughout watershed.

Muskrat
Ondatra zibethicus
Size: Length 40.9-62.0 cm
Appearance: Dark brown fur which is lighter on sides, paler below, and nearly white on throat. Long, scaley tail which is laterally flattened and tapers to a point. Hindfeet are partially webbed and larger than forefeet. Small eyes and ears.
Food: Mostly aquatic vegetation, as well as crayfish, frogs, and fish
Habitat: Less common than formerly in freshwater marshes, ponds and the Meduxnekeag River.

Pine Marten
Martes martes
Size: Male is approximately 68 cm in length, and the female is slightly smallerAppearance: Slender body with dense, chocolate-brown fur and long bushy tail. It has a cream-coloured bib on its throat and a noticeably pointed face.
Food: Small mammals, birds, insects, fungi, berries, and carrion
Habitat: Uncommon in mature coniferous forests in the watershed.

Deer Mouse
Permomyscus maniculatus
Size: Length 11.9-22.2 cm
Appearance: Often grayish to reddish brown above and white below. Tail is distinctly bicoloured and short-haired.
Food: Seeds, nuts, small fruits, berries, and insects
Habitat: Common in brushy areas, grasslands, and woodlands throughout the watershed.

Long-tailed Vole
Microtus longicaudus
Size: Length 15.5-22.1 cm
Appearance: Grayish-brown above and light grayish below with a long, bicoloured tail and off-white feet
Food: Primarily green vegetation, but will eat roots, underground fungi, and bark
Habitat: Common in dry, grassy meadow areas far from water

Meadow Vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus
Size: Length 14.0-19.5 cm
Appearance: Yellowish-brown to reddish-brown peppered with black or blackish-brown above and gray with silver-tipped hair below. Long tail that is dark above and paler below. Feet are dark in colour
Food: Green vegetation and tubers
Habitat: Common in grassy fields, marshes, swamps, and woodland.

Northern Short-tailed Shrew
Blarina brevicauda
Size: Length 9.6-12.7 cm
Appearance: Solid gray above and below with a short tail
Food: Snails, earthworms, centipedes, beetles, mice, and smaller shrews
Habitat: Common in woods and wet areas

Masked Shrew
Sorex cinerus
Size: Length 7.1-11.1 cm
Appearance: Brownish above above, with a silvery or grayish belly. Long, tufted tail which is brown above and lighter below
Food: Moth and beetle larvae, slugs, snails, and spiders
Habitat: Common in moist fields, bogs, marshes, and moist woods

Smoky Shrew
Sorex fumeus
Size: Length 11.0-12.7 cm
Appearance: Body is brownish in summer, grayish in winter. Tail is dark brown above, paler below, and quite long
Food: Earth worms, sow bugs, and centipedes, as well as a variety of other insects
Habitat: Not uncommon in moist wooded areas, deep woods, swamps, and along streams.

Water Shrew
Sorex palustris
Size: Length 14.4-15.8 cm
Appearance: Very dark above with a silvery-white belly and long tail. Hindfeet have a fringe of stiff hairs
Food: Aquatic food, such as mayfly and stonefly nymphs, as well as terrestrial invertebrates
Habitat: Common among boulders along streams.

Field Mouse
Apodemus sylvaticus
Size: 8-11 cm
Appearance: Dark brown above and silvery gray below. They have large ears and large protruding eyes
Food: Seeds, buds, fruits, insects, worms, centipedes, snails, and fungi
Habitat: Abundant at forest edges, woodland, fields, grassland, hedgerows, and gardens.Some other mice, voles and shrews

 

 

 

 

 

Community Stewardship for the Meduxnekeag Watershed Region
 
Last update : July 22, 2005